- I was narrowly escaped death.
- I was threatening to death if I failed to obey orders.
- I walked long distance without rest.
- I thought I was killed
- I saw others being arrested.
- I thought I would never see any of my relatives again.
- I carried heavy loads over long distances.
- I saw seriously wounded people.
- I saw shattered dead bodies and parts of the human bodies.
- I was beaten in captivity.
- They removed my cloths.
- I voluntarily escaped from captivity.
- I heard people were screaming for help.
- I saw people are dying due to starvation.
- I was sexually abused.
- I saw people were killed by knife.
- I was hungry nearly starved to death
- I was imprisoned.
- I drop out from school.
- I lost my family members.
- I survived after severe torture.
- I have survived from aerial bombardment and shelling.
- I am the only survivor in the family.
- I have witnessed my family members being killed.
- I have witnessed my family members get injured.
Psycho-Social-Index = n x 4%
Psychosocial Signs observed
- Malnourished and emaciated
- Dry lips
- Poor hygiene
- Chest infections and cough
- Dermatological complains – rashes, scars, wounds etc. Fungal infection
- Excessive sweating
- Muscular pain
- Twitching eyes
- Pelvic pains
- Waistline ache
- Stomach pains
- Joint pain
- General fatigue
Emotional signs observed
- Fears and worries
- Crying, screaming and groaning
- Phobias related torture, blast.
Cognitive signs observed
- Intrusive thoughts
- Late of concentration
- Memory loss
- Incoherent speech pattern
- Psychological impact of war and sexual abuse
- Removes adolescent are up to six times more likely than male adolescent to develop PTSD.
Behavioural signs observed
- Nightmares and sleep disturbances
- Lack of self case
- Day dreaming
- Thumb sucking
- Repetitive play
- Extreme suspicion
- Less concentrated activities
- Reckless and sometimes self-destructive actions.
- Loss of interest in play games
- Social withdrawal
- Difficulty in staying one place for long
Sexually related complicity observed
- Abdominal pains
- Waistline pains
- Back ach
- Vaginal candidness (White discharge)
- Genital wards / Gonorrhoea / Syphilis / Genital herpes / Amenorrhoea / Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Forceful birth control
- Female adolescent
Since the mothers were implanted with contraceptive medications they developed irregular menstrual bleeding frequently and their sexual relation with the partner was not satisfactory It made family problems.
Ecological Perspective of Gendered Violence and inequality in Northern Sri Lanka after Math of 2009
Therefore, the 2008-2009 disaster in Vanni has given three international responsibilities.
- Accountability to disaster
- Political solution to Tamils ethnic problem
- Addressing the Psychosocial issues among the survivors.
If the human right authorities aloof from the integrated international mechanism, Tamil community will be severely affected.